The same Acts and regulations apply to public and private prisons in Victoria.
Corrections Act 1986 (Vic) and Corrections Regulations 2019 (Vic)
The Corrections Act 1986 (Vic) (‘Corrections Act’) is the principal Act governing the operation of correctional facilities in Victoria. The provisions of the Corrections Act specify the establishment and administration of prisons. This is supplemented by the Corrections Regulations 2019 (Vic) (‘Corrections Regulations’), which give practical content to the Corrections Act.
Sentencing Act 1991 (Vic)
The Sentencing Act 1991 (Vic) (‘Sentencing Act’) plays an important role in determining the use of court sanctions administered by Corrections Victoria.
Charter of Human Rights and Responsibilities
The Charter of Human Rights and Responsibilities Act 2006 (Vic) (‘Human Rights Charter’) creates an obligation for public authorities to give proper consideration to, and act in a way that is compatible with, human rights. The Human Rights Charter came into full operation on 1 January 2008. From this date, Corrections Victoria has been responsible for assessing and, if necessary, amending legislation, regulations, policies, procedures and frameworks. (See ‘Human Rights Charter’ in ‘Prisoners’ rights and remedies for breaches‘.)
Victorian prisons are subject to Correctional Standards: the ‘Correctional Management Standards for Men’s Prisons in Victoria’, and the ‘Standards for the Management of Women Prisoners in Victoria’. These standards focus on the outcomes and outputs to be achieved by public and private prison operators. They also contain guidelines for the classification and placement of prisoners.
There is also the ‘Correctional Management Standards for Post-sentence Supervision and Detention of Serious Sex Offenders’. These standards establish the minimum requirements for the management of serious sex offenders on post-sentence orders in Victoria.
These standards are available from Corrections Victoria.
Victorian prisons are subject to ‘Commissioner’s Requirements’. These are high-level requirements for operational matters relating to:
- security and control (e.g. contraband, controlled items, strip searches);
- prisoner management;
- prisoner services including healthcare services.
The Commissioner’s Requirements are issued to ensure consistency of correctional practice across all Victorian prisons. The Commissioner’s Requirements must be followed by all staff members who provide correctional services in Victoria.
The Commissioner’s Requirements are available from Corrections Victoria.
Deputy Commissioner’s Instructions
The Correctional Standards and Commissioner’s Requirements are put into practice through the Deputy Commissioner’s Instructions (DCIs) (for public prisons) and the Operating Instructions (OIs) (for private prisons). These are public documents, except for the sections that deal with prison security issues, which are subject to restricted access. Prisoners are entitled to have adequate access to these instructions.
Prisons in Victoria are also governed by the Local Operating Procedures (LOPs) (for public prisons) or by the Operation Manuals (OMs) (for private prisons). These are the practical implementation of the DCIs that provide procedural information tailored to each prison.
The Corrections Regulations outline which prison offences trigger a disciplinary process. The DCIs or OIs operationalise the Corrections Regulations by outlining the practical disciplinary process. The LOPs or OMs will be developed if it is necessary to outline specific processes followed at the prison level to meet the practical requirements of the DCIs or OIs. The development of LOPs or OMs is not always necessary.
The LOPs and OMs contain provisions that can significantly affect a prisoner. For example, if a prisoner commits an offence while in prison, they may be subject to penalties under the relevant Act, as well as the penalties in the LOPs or OMs.
The LOPs and OMs are made under delegated power from the Corrections Act or Corrections Regulations. If a rule in the LOPs goes further than the legislation, it is arguably beyond the power of the Deputy Commissioner to make that rule. Accordingly, any prison manager relying on that rule has made an error of law, which is reviewable under the Administrative Law Act 1978 (Vic) or by judicial review in the Supreme Court. Complaints about the actions of prison officials can also be made to the Victorian Ombudsman. (See ‘Making requests or complaints’.)
Sentence Management Manual
The Sentence Management Manual was published in July 2020. This manual provides guidance on sentence management functions, including prisoner assessment and classification, prisoner management, and prisoner transfers. This manual aims to ensure that prison staff conduct their duties consistently and in-line with legal requirements and with the principles enshrined in the Offender Management Framework. The manual is available from Corrections Victoria.
Prisoner access to prison manuals, legislation and rules
An important decision relating to prisoners’ access to the OMs and LOPs is Minogue v Department of Justice & Group 4 Correctional Services Ltd  VCAT 1194, which upheld the right of prisoners to access such material. However, the OMs can only be accessed in prison libraries; therefore, access to these documents is controlled by prison management.
As soon as possible after reception (i.e. a prisoner’s arrival at prison and their initial period of incarcertaion), prisoners are made aware of the sanctions that apply to breaches of prison rules, the Corrections Regulations, and prison routines (DCI 1.16). Additionally, it is a prisoner’s right to access information and they can request this of prison staff, or be redirected to the appropriate request and complaints process.
Some prison libraries have copies of the Corrections Act, Corrections Regulations, Human Rights Charter, Deputy Commissioner’s Instructions, Commissioner’s Requirements, Local Operating Procedures, OMs and the General Manager’s Instructions for the particular prison.