Statutory rules made by parliament or by bodies the parliament delegates power to, for example a local council or a registration authority. See delegated legislation; statute.
Unless stated otherwise, all references to legislation in this ‘The role of the coroner’ section are references to the Coroners A written law made by parliament. Also called an ‘Act of parliament’, ‘statute’ or legislation. 2008 (Cth).
Notifying the coroner of a death
The Coroners Act 2008 (Vic) (‘CA 2008’) came into force on 1 November 2009. There is a Found in a statute of delegated legislation. For example, a statutory authority or body is aperson or organisation that has special powers given by parliament to do work for the public benefit. requirement imposed on members of the public generally (s 12), and on medical practitioners specifically (s 13), to notify a coroner – or the police officer in (1) A statement giving the details of a crime an accused person is claimed to have committed. (2) A personal property security. (3) A judge’s directions to a jury at the end of a case. of a police station – of a reportable death where there are reasonable grounds to believe the death has not been reported (s 12) (see ‘What is a “reportable death”?’, below). Section 13(1) of the CA 2008 applies to reportable deaths; sections 14 and 15 of the CA 2008 apply to reviewable deaths.
A person who has reasonable grounds to believe the coroner has not been notified of a reportable death must report the death as soon as possible (s 12).
Where a registered medical practitioner is present at or after a person’s death, the medical practitioner must report the death to the coroner without delay (s 10(1)).
It is normal practice for the BDM The officer in charge of the administrative section of a court, which is known as the registry. See also prothonotary. to report to the coroner any reportable deaths that have not been investigated.
A member of the immediate family of a deceased where the death occurs within three months of (1) To fulfil an obligation or be released from an obligation. For example, a debtor can discharge a debt by paying it; a prisoner can be discharged (released) from jail. from an approved mental health Formal delivery of legal documents to a person to tell them there are court proceedings against them which they must defend, or to make sure a witness in a case knows when they have to go to court to give evidence. may report the death to the coroner (s 12(2)). The coroner has the power to investigate whether such a death is a reportable death (s 4(3)).
What is a ‘reportable death’?
There is no exhaustive statutory A finalisation, especially a decision made by a court or tribunal to finalise (determine) a case. of exactly what is a ‘reportable death’. However, section 4(2)(a)–(j) of the CA 2008 sets out categories of cause of death that constitute a ‘reportable death’. These include:
- cases where a doctor could not discover the cause of death;
- deaths of persons while in Lawful control over a person which prevents them leaving. A person under arrest is in police custody and is not free to go. A person in prison is serving a custodial sentence that keeps them confined to the prison grounds. (s 4(2)(c));
- deaths of patients within the meaning of the Mental Health Act 1986 (Vic) (s 4(2(d) CA 2008);
- deaths of persons during or as a consequence of a medical procedure as defined by the CA 2008.
The death of a person who has been assisted to die under the provisions of the Done by your own free will. See also community treatment order (CTO). Assisted Dying Act 2017 (Vic) is not a reportable death for the purposes of the CA 2008 (s 4(3)).
The coroner has The authority of a court or tribunal to hear matters brought before it, based on some factor such as area or law, amount of money claimed, or geographic area. to hold an inquest about any fire or reportable death as defined by the CA 2008. The coroner must investigate a reportable death provided the death is a reportable death and took place in Victoria and occurred within 50 years of the death being reported (s 15). The coroner may investigate a death within 100 years of being notified of the death (s 14(1)). The coroner does not have to hold an inquest where the death is not a reportable death (as referred to in section 4(2)(b)), or where a medical investigator examines the body and is of the opinion that the death was caused by natural causes (s 17).
If any person buries, cremates or otherwise disposes of the body of any person who died in such circumstances before the coroner has had an opportunity of viewing the body, that person is guilty of an A criminal act prohibited by state or commonwealth criminal law. An offence is either a summary offence (minor) or an indictable offence (serious)..
The CA 2008 (ss 14, 15) gives the coroner wide powers regarding investigation of a death or the holding of an inquest. A coroner is not required to continue an investigation into a reportable death if a medical investigator provides an opinion that the death was due to natural causes despite the fact that the person died unexpectedly. A coroner is bound to order an autopsy if the they believe that the autopsy is necessary for the investigation of the death and it is appropriate to give the A legally proper instruction by one person (or body) to another, so that the person is bound to take action, or make a decision, as instructed. Compare dictation. (s 25(1)). Alternatively, the coroner may not require an autopsy to determine the cause of death, instead relying on other sources of information available. Under section 27 of the CA 2008, any person may ask the coroner to direct that an autopsy be held.
The coroner is obliged to take reasonable steps to notify the senior next of kin of the deceased (as defined in the CA 2008) of the coroner’s intention to conduct an autopsy (s 26(1)). The senior next of kin has 48 hours to object to the carrying out of an autopsy. The senior next of kin has a right of The review of the decision of a lower court by a higher court. If an appeal is successful, the higher court can change the lower court’s decision. to the Supreme An independent body that hears legal claims brought by parties and decides between them. Serious cases are heard by a judge and jury, or just a judge. Less-serious cases are heard by a magistrate. of Victoria if their objection is refused.
From 1 November 2009, the senior next of kin (as defined in the CA 2008) must be provided with any reports given to the coroner (s 115(1)(a)). Interested parties may be given leave to appear at the inquest (s 56), if one is held, and must be provided with a copy of the inquest brief (s 115(1)(b)). However, this right does not extend to general documents held by the coroner (s 115(6)).
The CA 2008 provides that a coroner may provide a body to a medical investigator to enable a preliminary examination to be performed on a body, which consists of various non-invasive tests, such as taking and testing samples, X-rays, or similar imaging tests. Accordingly, a preliminary examination may provide sufficient information to establish the cause of death, without requiring the need for an autopsy. If an autopsy is ordered the coroner must take reasonable steps to notify the senior next of kin (s 26(1)) (as defined in the CA 2008).
Such an autopsy can only be ordered where the coroner believes it is necessary for the investigation of the death and it is appropriate to give such a direction (s 25(2)). Within 48 hours of receipt of notice from the coroner, the senior next of kin may ask the coroner to reconsider the decision (s 26(2)). The senior next of kin must be notified of the result of the coroner’s reconsideration. The autopsy still cannot take place until 48 hours have elapsed from the time the senior next of kin is notified of the result of the coroners’ reconsideration, so that the senior next of kin may apply to the Supreme Court to have the decision overturned (s 26(2), (3)) if they wish to take that step.
The coroner has the power to make recommendations to any minister, public statutory authority or entity regarding any matter where a death or fire has been investigated (s 72). The public statutory authority or entity receiving the recommendations is obliged to respond within three months (s 72(3)). Unless otherwise ordered by a coroner, a coroner’s findings, comments and recommendations made following an inquest must now be published on the internet (s 73).