The insurance industry operates under a General Insurance Code of Practice directed at standards and consumer protection and other legislation covering the contents of insurance policies and standard cover for some domestic insurance policyholders. Insurance marketing and selling practices have been reformed by financial services legislation.


Mark Attard

Partner, Clyde & Co.

Insurance contracts

Last updated

1 July 2020


It is important that policyholders read and retain all correspondence and documentation provided to them by insurers. They should keep copies of any paperwork they complete.

Normally an insurer will require a consumer to complete a proposal form or application before considering the consumer for insurance. If a consumer has an existing policy with an insurer that is soon to expire, they may receive a renewal form for completion and return to the insurer.

If an insurer agrees to provide insurance, they will normally issue an insurance or policy schedule. The schedule contains important information about the insurance contract, such as the details of the insured person or parties, the period of insurance, the amount of cover, the type or class of risk insured, the premium, the excess, any additional risks covered by the insurance policy and special conditions applying to that consumer or that policy, and any specific risks excluded by the policy.

Insurers should also provide to the policyholder a copy of the policy wording or Product Disclosure Statement. This is normally a standard form document or booklet containing the terms and conditions of the policy and more specific information about what is covered and not covered by the insurance contract. The policy wording will also outline how policyholders can make a claim under the contract and their rights and responsibilities in respect of claims.

Generally, the insurance contract consists of the insurance schedule and policy wording; proposals and renewal forms may form part of the contract where they are referred to or incorporated in the contract by the schedule or policy wording.

If policyholders wish to lodge a claim, they will normally be required to complete a notification form or claim form.

Many insurers arrange insurance cover over the phone and use the phone session to canvass proposal information with the consumer. They then mail it (with an invoice) to the consumer as a confirmation of insurance details form. Some insurers require the consumer to sign and return the confirmation form. Other insurers may simply state that by paying the premium the consumer is taken to have confirmed the information contained in the form.

This confirmation form may be relied on by an insurer when it believes a policyholder has not disclosed important information to the insurer.

As discussed below, an insurer is required to notify a consumer of their duty of disclosure before an insurance contract is entered into.

It is important that consumers carefully read the confirmation and check its accuracy. In gathering information over the telephone, an insurer may not ask all the necessary questions. It is not unusual for insurers to guess certain details about the consumer (e.g. a confirmation may state that a consumer has no prior criminal convictions when this is not true).

The same principles apply to insurance policies bought over the internet. Consumers must complete the online application form accurately and honestly. Keep screenshots of information provided to insurers. Download a copy of the Product Disclosure Statement for your own records. Check the insurance information when it is emailed to you; correct any inaccuracies by contacting the insurer. All policies have a cooling-off period; check the Financial Services Guide to ascertain the length of the
cooling-off period.

Buying insurance over the internet may be quick and convenient; however, consumers need to ensure that the cover meets their needs. Cheap premiums mean reduced cover. (Before you submit any personal information, look for a security policy to ensure that any communications are reasonably protected from third parties. Also, set your browser to notify you when you leave a secure connection.)

The Insurance Code (pt 6) requires insurers to ensure communications are in plain language. Pressure selling is prohibited. If an insurer cannot provide cover, they are required to give reasons and to tell the consumer the information they relied on when assessing the relevant application (see ‘Contacts’ at the end of this chapter).

Cover note

It is not unusual for consumers to require insurance at short notice. A common example is the purchase of motor vehicle insurance where the consumer wishes to take delivery of the motor vehicle before any insurance paperwork can be completed. In these circumstances, insurers will issue a cover note. Cover notes are usually issued over the telephone and despite the absence of any paperwork or documentation they represent legally binding insurance policies. The IC Act refers to cover notes as ‘interim contracts
of insurance’.

Before the IC Act, insurers issued a cover note after a policyholder satisfactorily completed an insurance proposal. The unsatisfactory completion of a proposal allowed insurers to avoid their cover note obligations.

Section 38 of the IC Act makes such provisions void. This section provides that if before the cover note has expired the policyholder has submitted a proposal, then the insurer shall remain liable under the cover note until either the insurer or some other insurer issues insurance cover (or another cover note), or the cover note is cancelled, or a consumer withdraws their proposal, whichever occurs first.

It follows that consumers arranging a cover note should make written notes of the cover note details provided by the insurer. You may need to rely on these notes in the event that you wish to claim on the cover note before the cover note is confirmed in writing by the insurer.


The insurance premium is the price paid by the policyholder for the insurance policy. The premium may be payable in a lump sum or by instalments. Typically, the insurance contract will state that an insurer is not liable to cover any loss until the premium is paid. Depending on the policy wording and the renewal notice, there is no principle of law that requires the payment of premium before an insurance contract will operate. However, failure to pay a premium may entitle an insurer to cancel the insurance policy.


The excess (sometimes referred to as the ‘deductible’) is the contribution a policyholder is required to make towards the settlement or payment of any claim made under the insurance contract. Some insurers allow consumers to choose the level of their excess where a higher excess results in a reduced premium. Never choose an excess that you cannot afford, even if this means you pay a higher premium.

Some insurance contracts contain different excesses depending on the circumstances of the claim. For example, in motor vehicle insurance, a greater excess may be payable if the driver is below a certain age, or inexperienced. Consumers need to carefully read the insurance documentation to clarify whether an excess other than the basic excess is payable towards a claim.

In some policies no excess is payable. An example of this is where a policyholder has pre-paid to remove the excess. Some insurers will not require a policyholder to pay an excess if the driver of the insured vehicle is not at fault and the policyholder can provide details of the other driver.

Some insurers will not act on or pay a claim until the excess is paid. Policyholders need to read the policy documentation to confirm this requirement.

If insurers have recovered payments made under a policy from a third party (the person at fault), a policyholder may be entitled to a partial refund of any excess paid in respect of the claim.

Extent of cover

With the exception of life and accident policies, insurance policies are generally contracts of indemnity. In other words, they cover policyholders for losses sustained by them upon the happening of an insured event. A policyholder cannot recover more than they have lost.

The nature of an indemnity or cover under an insurance policy will depend on the terms of the policy and may include one or more of the following:

  • payment of market value;
  • replacement;
  • new for old replacement;
  • repair;
  • reinstatement; or
  • payment of an agreed value.

All of the above are normally subject to the policy limit, which is the maximum sum payable by insurers under the policy.

The nature of the indemnity provided under an insurance contract depends on the terms of the contract and the nature of the claim. In most cases an insurance contract will provide that the insurer will cover the policyholder against loss or damage as a result of an insured event subject to the insurer’s right, as far as circumstances permit, to either repair, reinstate or replace the item the subject of the insurance claim.

If the policy permits the insurer to choose to pay the value of the property at the time of the loss, that value is calculated on the basis of the amount of money required to restore the policyholder to their position at the time of the loss.

Where repair is permitted under the policy, this may mean either actual repair or paying the cost of repair. Sometimes the indemnity principle works to a policyholder’s disadvantage. An insurer is normally not required to repair a vehicle if the cost of repairs exceeds the value of the vehicle less any excess under the policy. In such circumstances, the policyholder receives the ‘write-off’ value of the vehicle, which is calculated as the pre-accident value of the motor vehicle less any salvage value, less any excess. Where the insured vehicle is relatively old, this may mean very little return to the policyholder, and it may not be enough to purchase a replacement vehicle.

If an insurer chooses to reinstate or repair damaged property these repairs must be carried out to the policyholder’s reasonable satisfaction and within a reasonable time. The insurer is responsible for the damaged property while it is being reinstated or repaired. Any further damage to the property during this period is normally the insurer’s responsibility.

Prescribed contracts

Sections 34 and 35 of the IC Act deal with prescribed contracts. Prescribed contracts are outlined in the IC Regulations and comprise these insurance policies:

  • motor vehicle insurance;
  • home buildings insurance;
  • home contents insurance;
  • sickness and accident insurance;
  • consumer credit insurance; and
  • travel insurance.

The IC Regulations set out the minimum requirements for such policies such as minimum policy limits and the required risks or insured events to be covered by the prescribed contract.

Under section 35 of the IC Act, an insurer can only avoid or limit its obligation to pay under a prescribed contract if, before the insurance contract is entered into, the insurer clearly informs the policyholder in writing of the relevant provisions on which the insurer relies to refuse or limit cover.

If the policy under consideration is a prescribed contract, it is important to check the IC Regulations to ensure that your policy conforms with the minimum requirements.

If an insurer seeks to reduce or decline cover under a prescribed contract, you should confirm that the term relied on by the insurer is permitted by the IC Regulations.

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