After When a debtor who cannot pay their debts has their money and property taken over and managed by a trustee who uses it to pay back creditors. The debtor is then called a bankrupt., a bankrupt is released from most ‘provable’ debts. A bankrupt is not released from any ‘non-provable’ debts.
The term ‘provable’ means that a The person or organisation to whom a debtor owes a debt. can lodge a proof of Money that is owed by one person or business to another. or a claim to be paid, and then be paid a proportion of the money (if any) raised by the sale of the bankrupt’s property.
Most debts for which the bankrupt was liable at the date of bankruptcy are provable in bankruptcy.
Provable debts that are not wiped by bankruptcy
Some provable debts are not wiped by bankruptcy (s 153(2) Bankruptcy A written law made by parliament. Also called an ‘Act of parliament’, ‘statute’ or legislation.). Debt includes Legal responsibility, enforced by civil or criminal courts. (s 5).
Provable debts that are not wiped by bankruptcy are debts:
- incurred by An intentionally dishonest act, or lack of action, done to deceive someone and bring some advantage over those who have been deceived.;
- under a Money paid to a person to financially support them. When a couple has separated both parents have a duty to support their children, and a court can order a parent to make regular payments to support the children. Maintenance for a spouse is now less common, and must be applied for within 12 months of a divorce. It is usually covered in a final settlement of all property. agreement order; or
- in relation to a (1) An undertaking by someone to do or not do something, especially a good behaviour bond, which can be part of a sentence given by a court. (2) A tenant’s payment of money to a landlord at the start of a tenancy. The bond is held in case there is any damage to the property or the tenant fails to pay rent. or to certain other criminal law penalties.
The main categories of debts that are non-provable (and so not wiped by bankruptcy) are:
- debts and liabilities incurred after the date of bankruptcy – ‘present or future, certain or contingent’ (s 82(1) Bankruptcy Act);
- An independent body that hears legal claims brought by parties and decides between them. Serious cases are heard by a judge and jury, or just a judge. Less-serious cases are heard by a magistrate. fines or penalties (s 82(3);
- HELP debts under the Higher Education Support Act 2003 (Cth);
- student loans agreed to before a student becomes bankrupt (s 12ZW Student Assistant Act 1973 (Cth)); and
- Not yet set as a definite amount. For example, unliquidated damages are damages where the final amount is still to be worked out by a judge or jury; an unliquidated debt has not been paid or cleared balance remains uncertain or in dispute. See also liquidated. A court order for money to be paid to someone to compensate them for a loss suffered as a result of a civil wrong or breach of contract. For example, a person who caused a serious permanent injury to another person can be ordered by the court to pay damages that compensate the injured person for their loss of income from being unable to work. See also aggravated damages; compensatory damages; general damages; liquidated damages; nominal damages; special damages. (an amount claimed by a creditor for damages that has not yet been fixed by formal agreement or by the court).
The trustee’s rights to a secured property are subject to the rights of the A person or company that is owed money and has the right to sell a debtor’s property to cover any money that has not been paid by the due date. The payment is secured by a mortgage, charge or lien over the property of the debtor..
A secured creditor keeps its interest in any secured goods or land (property) by way of its Money or property promised to be handed over as a guarantee for repayment of a loan, or as a guarantee that a defendant will meet their bail conditions. even after bankruptcy.
The secured creditor’s right to sell the security property
A secured creditor can only force a sale of the property if the A person who owes a debt. is in breach of the An agreement that the law will enforce..
Under section 302 of the Bankruptcy Act, any provision in a bill of sale, A restriction attached to ownership of property to secure the repayment of money borrowed. The mortgage stops the owner of the property selling it until they have paid off the debt., The right to hold a person’s property as security until an obligation is performed. For example, a car repairer can hold onto a car that has been repaired until the repair bill has been paid., (1) A statement giving the details of a crime an accused person is claimed to have committed. (2) A personal property security. (3) A judge’s directions to a jury at the end of a case. or PPSA security agreement that provides that a borrower might be in breach of a secured A contract relating to the giving of credit. merely by entering into bankruptcy is Having no legal effect. A void agreement has something wrong with it, so it cannot be a legally binding contract. For example, a verbal agreement to buy land would be void, because the law says those contracts have to be in writing.. Therefore, a creditor who has a mortgage etc. cannot take action against a debtor simply because the debtor bankrupts.
The trustee’s right to sell the security property
The trustee can sell a security property whether or not the bankrupt has defaulted in payments. The trustee can sell a property if there is sufficient (1) Fairness and justice. (2) A right to property that the court will recognise even though it does not amount to full legal ownership. (3) A set of legal rules that aims to reduce any harshness that would result from strict application of the law. to make it commercially practicable. If sold, the proceeds of sale pay the secured creditor and the balance goes to the bankrupt All the property a person has, including real property and personal property. It is often used to describe property belonging to someone who has died, or the property of a bankrupt..
Security over furniture and other household goods
Some fringe lenders have taken mortgages over people’s essential household goods to secure payment of debts. The threat to repossess goods is then used to force payment of the debt even after bankruptcy. For A debt that does not have to be paid until some future time. Being allowed to pay later, in the future, for something you are getting now. contracts entered into on or after 1 July 2010, these types of mortgages are void under the National Credit Code (s 50) and are known as ‘blackmail securities’. This type of mortgage could breach laws relating to unfair contract terms or Behaviour that takes unfair advantage of a vulnerable person in a contract or other transaction. The vulnerability can be due to factors such as poor education, disability, language difficulties or being affected by alcohol. (see Chapter 7.2: Under the Australian Consumer Law, a person who buys goods or services for less than $40 000 or for personal or home use. protection laws).
Seek advice from an organisation such as ASIC, or the Consumer Action Law Centre, or Consumer Affairs Victoria (see ‘Contacts’ at the end of this chapter) if this is happening to you or your clients.
Mortgages over houses and land
The trustee has no power to prevent the sale of a house by the A person or body, such as a bank, that lends money secured by a mortgage over the property of the borrower. if the bankrupt is in Failure to do something that is legally required. For example, a person who fails to make a payment on their car is in default on the loan; if they continue to be in default the creditor may issue a default summons to take the debtor to court. under the mortgage. If the bankrupt is not in default, the mortgagee A document that sets out what a person wants to happen to their money and other property after they die. not be able to take action against the debtor.
In this case, the bankrupt might be able to stay in the house and continue making payments, but the property will vest with the trustee and could be sold years later if the bankrupt’s equity increases sufficiently that it would be viable for the trustee to sell the house and land (see ‘Houses and land’, above).
The bankrupt as guarantor
A debtor who has guaranteed someone else’s debt will be released from any liability under the A binding promise made as reassurance that another person will carry out their legal obligations (e.g. paying a debt). The person making the promise is called a guarantor. If the person being guaranteed fails to pay, the guarantor becomes responsible for the debt. after bankruptcy. Such a debt should be included on the bankrupt’s statement of affairs as a debt.
The bankrupt’s friend or relative as guarantor
A bankrupt will be released from debts that have been guaranteed by someone else but the guarantor will not be released from the debt. The guarantor, or the person guaranteeing the bankrupt’s debt, is usually a friend or relative. Once the bankrupt stops paying the debt, the creditor usually takes action against the friend or relative under the guarantee. Therefore, many bankrupts want to continue paying such debts. The Bankruptcy Act does not prevent the bankrupt from doing this.
Although a mortgage cannot include a term providing that if the debtor becomes bankrupt the mortgage, etc. is breached (s 302 Bankruptcy Act), this provision does not apply to guarantees. Therefore, a creditor might be able to say that a guarantee has been breached due to the bankruptcy of the primary debtor and so claim payment from the guarantor. This will depend on the terms of each guarantee.
Debts to friends or relatives
Debts owed to friends and relatives usually result from a verbal not written contract. These debts should be shown on the statement of affairs as unsecured debts, regardless of whether or not the contract is in writing. A bankrupt can, if they wish, continue to pay such debts after the date of bankruptcy.
Unliquidated damages debts are not wiped by bankruptcy (ss 82, 153 Bankruptcy Act). This is a technical area of law that affects many consumer debtors, especially those who have car accident debts.
Damages are ‘unliquidated’ if a court has not assessed them or if the parties involved have not agreed on the amount of damages. The most common example of unliquidated damages is a claim for property damage as a result of a car accident.
Under section 82(2), ‘demands in the nature of unliquidated damages’ are not provable in bankruptcy unless they arise out of a breach of contract Failing to do what was agreed in a contract., promise or breach of A type of property ownership or arrangement where one party, known as the trustee, holds property or money for the benefit of another party, referred to as the beneficiary.. A discharged bankrupt is only released from debts that are provable in the bankruptcy (s 153) and therefore will not be released from debts arising from unliquidated damages.
If a debtor has a property damage debt and legal action for the debt appears unlikely in the short term, the debtor should consider whether:
- it is worth bankrupting on this debt – if this is the only debt it may not be worth bankrupting;
- they are able to wait until the other A person or organisation directly involved in a court case. Parties include the plaintiff or applicant, the defendant, and any third party added to the action, but not independent witnesses. gets a court judgment against them; or
- they can replace the claim for unliquidated damages with a claim under a contract or a A formal legal document that is used for specific purposes, such as trusts, some types of ownership of land, and agreements where no money is going to be paid. Deeds must clearly state that they are a deed, and they usually include the words ‘signed, sealed and delivered’. They are also called ‘contracts under seal’, although attaching a seal with wax is no longer necessary. by settling the claim.
Replacing a claim for unliquidated damages with a claim under a deed or contract
A settlement of a damages claim in a deed, or via an exchange of letters, can liquidate a damages claim. If the exchange of letters forms a contract the creditor will then have a claim in contract. If the settlement is in a deed, the creditor will have a claim under the deed. As a claim under a contract or a deed is provable in bankruptcy, the bankrupt should then be released from the claim by the bankruptcy.
Debtors should be aware that a creditor could always challenge this type of settlement and, if such a challenge were successful, the debt would then become unprovable and so not extinguished by the bankruptcy.
The debtor must prove that the liquidation occurred at least the day before the The time and place at which a court or tribunal hears the parties argue their case and makes a decision. of the creditor’s petition or a few days before the presentation of a debtor’s petition. The debt will not be included in the bankruptcy if the liquidation occurs after the date of the bankruptcy.
Maintenance and child support
A bankrupt is not released from maintenance or child support debts on (1) To fulfil an obligation or be released from an obligation. For example, a debtor can discharge a debt by paying it; a prisoner can be discharged (released) from jail. unless the court orders otherwise (s 153(2)(c) Bankruptcy Act).
Tax debts that arise before the date of the bankruptcy
Tax debts for the period before the date of bankruptcy are provable and extinguished after bankruptcy whether or not they have been assessed by the Australian Taxation Office (ATO).
If tax has not been assessed at the time of bankruptcy
If the ATO has not issued and served a notice of assessment at the time of the bankruptcy, a tax liability is a contingent liability and is provable under section 82.
If a debtor becomes bankrupt before the end of a financial year, the Taxation Commissioner can issue a tax assessment for the year to date. Once the bankrupt gets this separate assessment they should only be liable for any tax amounts that arise after the bankruptcy. If the ATO refuses to issue a separate assessment for the year to the date of the bankruptcy, the bankrupt can consider appealing this decision.
Tax debts that arise after the date of the bankruptcy
Debts arising from tax periods after the date of bankruptcy are not provable.
The ATO’s rights to take refunds
The ATO can take refunds during the period of the bankruptcy if the bankrupt has a tax debt from before the bankruptcy. If a bankrupt is entitled to a refund, the ATO can offset the refund due during the period of the bankruptcy against tax debts, including those provable tax debts incurred prior to bankruptcy.
In general under the Bankruptcy Act, a creditor is not entitled to take any action in respect of a In a bankruptcy, a debt accepted by the trustee for proportional payment from available funds. The creditor receives a share of the bankrupt’s estate and the bankrupt is released from having to pay the full amount of the debt. once a bankruptcy has commenced (s 58(3)). The An order that a particular legal action stop. A stay may be for a fixed period, or until some stated event occurs, or permanent. in section 58(3) does not apply to obligations incurred after bankruptcy has commenced (seeFoots v Southern Cross Mine Management Pty Ltd  HCA 56).
The trustee’s right to take refunds
The trustee can take a refund if it relates to a year prior to the bankruptcy. If the refund relates to a year after the date of the bankruptcy, it is treated as income and the trustee takes the amount into account when calculating income contribution.
Except in limited circumstances, Centrelink debts are wiped by bankruptcy. However, this is a complicated area of law and debtors should seek advice from the Social Security Rights Victoria (see ‘Contacts’ at the end of this chapter) or a A legal practitioner (lawyer) who sees clients and opens files to deal with their legal matters but usually does not appear in court. See also barrister. experienced in social security law and bankruptcy. Financial counsellors also have extensive experience in dealing with Centrelink debts and bankruptcy (for a list of services, see Chapter 5.4: Financial counselling services).
Generally, the following applies:
- As soon as Centrelink receives notification of a client’s bankruptcy from AFSA, it should stop all debt recovery action on the client’s Centrelink debts (including withholding action).
- Centrelink should stop all debt recovery action for the bankruptcy period; it should also refund any payments/withholdings that it has deducted after the date of bankruptcy and before discharge.
- Non-fraudulent Centrelink debts are generally extinguished by bankruptcy.
- Fraudulent Centrelink debts are not extinguished by bankruptcy. Centrelink will recommence withholdings for fraudulent debts when the debtor is discharged from bankruptcy.
Centrelink debts are not wiped by bankruptcy if the debt occurred as a result of a consumer’s fraudulent behaviour. Centrelink can make incorrect decisions on what constitutes fraudulent behaviour. As a result, many discharged bankrupts might be repaying Centrelink debts that should have been wiped by the bankruptcy.
If a debtor is bankrupting (or has bankrupted) and has a Centrelink debt, they should get advice on:
- whether there are circumstances to support an application that the debt was not fraudulently incurred;
- the review processes within Centrelink and the AAT in relation to challenging a Centrelink decision to pursue the debt after bankruptcy; and
- whether a debtor who has already been discharged from bankruptcy can apply for a refund of any payments made to, or taken by, Centrelink.
Penalties or fines imposed by a court in respect of an A criminal act prohibited by state or commonwealth criminal law. An offence is either a summary offence (minor) or an indictable offence (serious). against a law are not provable in bankruptcy (s 82 Bankruptcy Act). This does not apply to proceeds of crime orders and, at the other extreme, to parking fines issued by a local council.
The application of the Bankruptcy Act to fines is a complex area of law and legal advice should be obtained where a person is considering bankrupting on a fine, as the particular circumstances surrounding the imposition of a fine may impact upon whether or not that fine is extinguished upon discharge from bankruptcy.
Debts resulting from fraud
A debt incurred by fraud, or fraudulent breach of trust, can be provable in bankruptcy but is generally not extinguished on discharge from bankruptcy (s 153(2) Bankruptcy Act).
After bankruptcy, a debtor can apply under to stay (suspend) an action by the creditor in relation to a fraudulent debt. Such an application, if successful, would have the same effect as extinguishing the debt (s 60(1)(b)).
Debts arising from compensation or restitution orders
Debts may arise from compensation or Making good, returning things to the way they were. For example a court can order restitution of stolen goods to someone who is entitled to them; a party to a contract that has been rescinded is entitled to restitution that restores the status quo. orders (e.g. ss 74, 77, 84, 85B Sentencing Act 1991 (Vic)) and from Involving money. A pecuniary loss is a loss of money and a pecuniary penalty is a fine. penalty orders. Pecuniary penalty orders require payments to the Commonwealth for amounts based on the benefits a person has derived from an offence or from unlawful activity (Part 2 Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 (Cth)).
Section 82(3A) of the Bankruptcy Act provides that an ‘amount payable under an order made under a proceeds of crime law is not provable in bankruptcy’.
The Bankruptcy Act does not categorise other types of restitution orders as being either provable or not provable. For example, a debt payable under a restitution order is a provable debt and a debtor can apply for a stay of proceedings insofar as it is required restitution (s 60(1)(b) Bankruptcy Act).
Deciding whether to cease payment under the order
Before deciding that bankruptcy means that you can cease payment under a restitution order, you should first get a copy of the order to decide what type of restitution order has been made. Check that:
- it is not an order made under proceeds of crime Statutory rules made by parliament or by bodies the parliament delegates power to, for example a local council or a registration authority. See delegated legislation; statute.; and
- the debtor will not face a criminal penalty or other adverse consequence for failure to pay;
- the debtor does not need to apply for a stay of restitution.
Other adverse consequences of non-payment
Even if the order is not one made under proceeds of crime legislation, check to see if the order has any adverse consequences on non-payment. For example, the order might include a condition that breach of the order results in imprisonment; if so, this condition may apply regardless of whether the debtor has bankrupted.
However, note that the court may exercise Power to choose whether to do something or not. For example, a judge may have discretion to allow a party extra time to complete a document if it would be unfair to enforce the legal time limit. to stay any legal process against the debtor, including imprisonment for non-payment of a restitution or An order requiring that someone found guilty of an offence pay for damage to property caused by the offence. The payment is made to the affected person or business. (s 60(1) Bankruptcy Act).
Restitution and compensation orders and fraud
If the restitution order has been made in relation to a fraud, the debt arising under the order might be provable but might not be extinguished after bankruptcy (see ‘Debts resulting from fraud’, above).
Where a debt is in joint names and one debtor is bankrupt, the non-bankrupt debtor, in almost all cases, continues to be liable for the whole of the debt. (See also ‘Guaranteed debts’, above.)
Rent debts are wiped in bankruptcy. However, this does not prevent the landlord from evicting a tenant for non-payment of rent.
Office of Housing rent debts
A bankrupt who rents from the Office of Housing may continue their The agreement between a landlord and a tenant for the rental of a property. effectively without disruption, subject to approval of the Office of Housing. Therefore, before bankrupting, a debtor should discuss their circumstances with the Office of Housing to confirm what arrangements can be made.
If the Office of Housing issues a notice to vacate, the tenant should seek advice from Tenants Victoria (tel: 9416 2577).
Utilities and telecommunications
The practices of different companies vary. The law is that bills relating to the period up to the date of bankruptcy are wiped by the bankruptcy, but the bankrupt will still owe bills relating to the use of these services after the date of bankruptcy. After the bankruptcy, utility and telco companies sometimes open a new account, and require payment of a security deposit, or restrict the Formal delivery of legal documents to a person to tell them there are court proceedings against them which they must defend, or to make sure a witness in a case knows when they have to go to court to give evidence. in some way.
Commonwealth Government student loans
Commonwealth Government student loans are not provable in bankruptcy (s 82(3AB) Bankruptcy Act). These loans are HELP debts, VETSL debts, student start-up loan debts, ABSTUDY student start-up loan debts, and trade support loan debts. They may be recovered during and after bankruptcy.
For more information about higher education debts and their effect on bankruptcy, contact AFSA, or the VET Student Loans A public official appointed to investigate citizens’ complaints against government departments and statutory authorities. A specialised ombudsman resolves consumer complaints in a particular industry, for example the banking ombudsman for the banking industry. See also statutory authority. (see ‘Contacts’ at the end of this chapter), or the ATO’s personal tax information line on 13 28 65.