What is a land title?
A land title is the official record that confirms who is the registered owner of a piece of land at any point in time. A land title contains information about mortgages, covenants, caveats and registered easements. Land titles can be searched online (at www.landata.vic.gov.au). These title searches are included in the A document that a seller (vendor) of real estate must give to the buyer buyer before a contract of sale is signed. It contains information about the property, such as rates and council planning restrictions that affect it. Also called a section 32 statement. that accompanies a An agreement that the law will enforce. of sale of real All the property a person has, including real property and personal property. It is often used to describe property belonging to someone who has died, or the property of a bankrupt..
Unusual titles: An overview
Because of the history of how land and subdivisions have been regulated in Victoria, not all titles are the same. Unusual titles include general law titles, company share apartments, stratum titles, strata titles, cluster titles, subdivision titles, and off-the-plan properties (these are outlined below). Dealing with unusual titles requires advice from a property lawyer or a licensed conveyancer.
General law titles
The general law title system relies on a ‘chain of deeds’ to prove ownership. This ‘chain’ is made up of all the documents related to the sale of the land since the land was initially sold by the (1) A common term for the legal power and authority of the Commonwealth, state and territory governments. (2) Another name for the prosecution in a criminal trial.. General law titles are still Legally binding or effective. proof of ownership. A buyer must have each document in the chain assessed by an expert to ensure it is valid. However, Land Use Victoria recommends that all general law titles be converted to registered or Torrens titles. In recent years, Land Use Victoria has been unilaterally converting many general law titles, without input from landowners.
General law titles and COVID-19
Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, Land Use Victoria has accepted applications to convert general law titles online via PEXA.
Company share apartments
Company share apartments are the earliest ‘group’ titles and were popular in the 1950s. In these schemes, a company is the registered owner of the land and buildings. Unlike standard apartment purchases, the title to a company share apartment is not transferred from the company to the buyer. Instead, each buyer is issued with a parcel of the company’s shares that entitles them to live in a particular apartment.
The company reviews each sale and must To agree to something being done, to approve an action or arrangement. See also informed consent. to the transfer of shares; it is usually the buyer’s responsibility to obtain the company’s consent for the sale. Note that the time it takes for the company to review and approve a sale may affect the settlement period. These titles are not popular with lenders as the loan is secured by shares, not land. ASIC has strict requirements about what must be in the contract to exempt the A seller. from the usual Providing information to another person or institution as required by a contract or other legal process. requirements when selling shares.
With stratum titles, each owner receives a registered title to an apartment in the development and shares in the Formal delivery of legal documents to a person to tell them there are court proceedings against them which they must defend, or to make sure a witness in a case knows when they have to go to court to give evidence. company. The company holds the title to the common property and manages the property on behalf of all the owners. Some lenders are hesitant to lend against stratum titles as Money or property promised to be handed over as a guarantee for repayment of a loan, or as a guarantee that a defendant will meet their bail conditions. because the service company has the first call on the land for debts owed by the owner.
Sales of these lots are complicated; a contract of sale for a stratum title property should only be signed after you have obtained independent legal advice.
Many company share schemes and stratum titles have been converted to strata titles, which significantly improves the saleability and value of the apartments. However, conversion requires the agreement of all the owners and mortgagees. Also, conversion is expensive.
Strata titles were introduced in 1967 to reduce the complications of multi-storey developments. Strata titles were also used for many single-storey and villa-unit developments. Each owner in a strata subdivision receives a registered title. A Found in a statute of delegated legislation. For example, a statutory authority or body is aperson or organisation that has special powers given by parliament to do work for the public benefit. A body corporate created by registration of a plan of subdivision or a plan of strata or cluster subdivision. See also prescribed owners corporation. (not a company) manages the block. (Note that before 31 December 2007, owners corporations were called the ‘body corporate’.) Each unit owner is a member of the owners corporation and contributes to the management and running The amount charged by a lawyer for legal work. Lawyers can only charge the amount agreed with the client in a costs agreement or the amount stated by a court in its rules. The party who loses a case usually has to pay all their own costs plus most of the costs reasonably incurred by the other side. See also indemnity costs. of the block. Owners corporation rules govern the way the block is managed. An owners corporation is responsible for the common property areas and is liable for what happens on common property.
Cluster titles are rare; they are similar to strata titles. Cluster titles introduced in 1974 to facilitate flexible development of vacant land.
The Subdivision A written law made by parliament. Also called an ‘Act of parliament’, ‘statute’ or legislation. replaced the legislative schemes with a single subdivision procedure under which owners have registered titles to their lots. The procedure is more flexible and allows an owners corporation to be created whether or not there is common property. The plan and the owners corporation rules define owners’ rights to use common property, easements, lots, and each owner’s contribution to the owners corporation’s funds.
The Owners Corporations Act 2006 (Vic) started operating on 31 December 2007. This Act controls the activities of owners corporations, removed provisions about bodies corporate from the Subdivision Act 1988 (Vic) (‘Subdivision Act’), and comprehensively provides for the activity and operation of all owners corporations in Victoria. (See Chapter 6.5: Owners corporations.)
While strata titles provide individual unit or lot ownership, there are restrictions that go with these titles. Owners of a property with a strata title must abide by the rules of the owners corporation. Note that while there is a model version of these rules, many owners corporations expand the model rules to include, for example, rules about noise, pets, colour of paint on external walls, and Money paid to a person to financially support them. When a couple has separated both parents have a duty to support their children, and a court can order a parent to make regular payments to support the children. Maintenance for a spouse is now less common, and must be applied for within 12 months of a divorce. It is usually covered in a final settlement of all property. funds.
A buyer should investigate the rules of an owners corporation to see if there are restrictions that do not accord with their lifestyle. Also, remember that the majority of owners govern the owners corporation rule-making process, so discovering as much as possible about your potential future neighbours can be useful.
A common problem in a strata development is the mix of owner-occupied units and tenanted units. An owner-occupier can find themselves dealing with complacent absentee owners about owners corporation issues affecting their occupancy. Doing your research before you sign a contract of sale can often help to alleviate or avoid such problems.
Owners corporations and flammable cladding
Another common problem currently faced by owners corporations in Melbourne is the existence of flammable cladding on external walls of apart-ment buildings. As external walls are considered to be common property, buyers should be prepared to pay part of the cost to remove the cladding. The amount depends on the lot’s financial Legal responsibility, enforced by civil or criminal courts.. If a building has flammable cladding, this may affect a buyer’s ability to secure finance to buy a lot.
If it is unclear whether or not a building has flammable cladding, buyers should – before making an The first step in agreeing to make a legally binding agreement. An offer must be accepted before there can be a legally enforceable contract. For example, a person can offer to sell their car for $5000 and a buyer can accept the offer and pay that purchase price. on a lot – obtain further information from the owners corporation manager, the local council, or the Victorian Building Authority.
Inactive owners corporations
Often, it is said there is no owners corporation. This is not accurate. More likely, the owners corporation is not active or only does the minimum required to insure the common property (note that two-lot subdivisions are exempt from this requirement).
If there are three or more lots on the plan that do not include ‘accessory lots’ (e.g. carpark lots)and there is common property (e.g. a driveway), the vendor’s statement should include a copy of the insurance for the common property and information about how this insurance premium is split between the owners.
If an owners corporation has not, in the past 15 months, held an annual general meeting, nor fixed any fees, nor held an insurance policy, then it may state in the vendor’s statement that it is inactive. However, it is technically not possible for a three-plus lot subdivision with common property to be inactive as the common property must be insured.
Off-the-plan properties do not yet have a title because the plan of subdivision is not yet registered. Before agreeing to purchase an off-the-plan property, you should seek independent legal advice, especially about A state tax on the transfer of ownership of property such as land, or on leases. savings and the potential risks associated with such purchases.
Sales of off-the-plan properties are now common with the explosion of high-rise apartment developments in major cities. Developers obtain finance for these projects and are therefore under pressure to show their lenders signed contracts as Material presented to a court to prove or disprove a fact. It can include what witnesses say as well as documents and other objects. of properties being sold and of the profitability of the development.
Selling an off-the-plan property involves the vendor giving the buyer a complex contract of sale well before the actual construction of the building. The contract contains all the plans and specifications of the property being purchased. Usually, the contract is not a building contract as the building agreement is between the developer and a licensed builder. The contract is usually weighted in the vendor’s favour to allow flexibility in the timeframes, building design, and changes to the plan of subdivision.
Off-the-plan property contracts generally contain substantial detail about the proposed development. This includes the rights of the vendor to vary the planning and building permits, information about amendments to the common property areas, the plan of subdivision (including the boundaries of the unit or lot being purchased), the location of easements, and when building works A document that sets out what a person wants to happen to their money and other property after they die. commence. The contract will also stipulate what is to happen if the works cannot be completed or the plan registered by the nominated sunset date.
In 2019, the Victorian Government passed new laws that remove the ability of developers to use sunset clauses to intentionally delay building projects and exploit buyers. Developers will only be able to use sunset clauses with written consent from the buyer or permission from the Supreme An independent body that hears legal claims brought by parties and decides between them. Serious cases are heard by a judge and jury, or just a judge. Less-serious cases are heard by a magistrate. of Victoria.
Currently in Melbourne, there are lots of apartment developments and lending requirements have been tightened. The biggest risk of purchasing off-the-plan in such a market is that, come settlement, a buyer’s bank values the property at less than what the buyer paid for it and the bank will not lend as much as it first indicated. The best way a buyer can protect themselves from this situation is by saving as much money as possible between signing the contract and settlement (and have a back-up plan, such as a parent going guarantor).
There are other factors to think about before buying off-the-plan, considering a developer may take one to six years to build the property (depending on the sunset date in the contract):
- Will you still want to live here in say, six years’ time? What could change in your life during that period? Would you be better-off buying an already built apartment that is available now?
- Will there be changes in your life in the next six years that could result in a bank not agreeing to lend you as much money? (e.g. Are you planning on starting a business or a family or shifting to a lower-paid job?)
- Would you still want this property if some of the fixtures/finishes were not the same as in the marketing materials, or if the dimensions of the property were reduced by four per cent, or if some of the view or facilities were not as promised?
Due to the complexity of off-the-plan property contracts, buyers should seek legal advice before signing the contract of sale as buyers can be bound by the contract in ways that might surprise them.
Guarantees and desposit bonds
For off-the-plan properties, it is not unusual for buyers to pay the deposit by way of a bank A binding promise made as reassurance that another person will carry out their legal obligations (e.g. paying a debt). The person making the promise is called a guarantor. If the person being guaranteed fails to pay, the guarantor becomes responsible for the debt. or a deposit (1) An undertaking by someone to do or not do something, especially a good behaviour bond, which can be part of a sentence given by a court. (2) A tenant’s payment of money to a landlord at the start of a tenancy. The bond is held in case there is any damage to the property or the tenant fails to pay rent. that is issued in the vendor’s favour. Check the contract to see if this is permitted (note that the vendor needs to consent to the deposit being paid this way). The original bank guarantee or deposit bond is usually held by the vendor’s A legal practitioner (lawyer) who sees clients and opens files to deal with their legal matters but usually does not appear in court. See also barrister. until settlement; after settlement, the document should be returned to the buyer to send back to their final institution to be destroyed. Solicitors acting for vendors should also be wary of bank guarantees or deposit bonds expiring before they have a chance to call on them (e.g. if a buyer defaults and the vendor wants to call on the deposit bond or bank guarantee to access the deposit money). Generally, bank guarantees or deposit bonds must have an expiry date of at least 45 days after the due date for settlement.